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Guide to e-cig world.
Hi, dear forum users! Recently, I have finished a big text work, collecting all my e-cig knowledge into one book. It starts with history and other moments, and I will try to translate some parts of that text for you. Maybe someone will be interested to read this. Sorry, if there are some mistakes, it's really big and still a work in progress.

The history behind the creation of electronic cigarettes.
In the second half of the 20th century, mankind realized that smoking causes significant harm to health, and began to look for ways to save people from such a harmful habit.
Attempts were very diverse, but at first, all of the inventors tried to come up with an alternative means of delivering nicotine into the body, considering the dependence on it as the main reason why it is difficult for a person to quit smoking. Nicotine patches, chewing gum, and various other ways were explored on the way.
Unfortunately, this did not give any special effect, and the person, even after receiving a fair dose, still used a cigarette - which means that the dependence was either not related to nicotine in general, or related to something else. And one of the well-founded assumptions is the purely psychological dependence: a habit of the process of smoking tobacco and the rituals associated with this process. So - it is necessary to give a person the opportunity to keep his habit, while protecting health from harmful substances.
And in 2004, in China, a pharmacist named Hon Lik, who survived a family tragedy shortly before that - the death of his father from lung cancer, was preoccupied with the idea of inventing a fundamentally new device that helps to deliver the nicotine to end user, that could be smoked like a cigarette and which would be more safe for health. The problem, in general, was not too complicated, and soon enough, Hon Lik invented an object that is now commonly called an electronic cigarette.
Principles of the operation of an electronic cigarette.
Let's see how an electronic cigarette works, and why it is such an effective simulation of conventional smoking.
To begin with, it should be mentioned that the property of glycerin, which turns out to be very useful in this case, is to turn spontaneously into steam when heated to about 200-300 degrees Celsius. Or rather, not even into steam, because we know from the school physics course that steam is a gas, pretty invisible to the human eye, but, to put it scientifically, into an aerosol: into a fine suspension of liquid droplets in the air. I must say that this principle was known long before the invention of electronic cigarettes, and many of you came across it personally - just so, heating the liquid based on glycerin and turning it into an aerosol, the stage smoke machines work.
Thus, to obtain an imitation of tobacco smoke from glycerin aerosol was very simple, it required only to wrap it all in a "body" that will make the process of inhaling similar to smoking a regular cigarette. The easiest way is to use a heating spiral like the one you can easily find in any electric heating appliance: iron, hair dryer, electric stove, boiler and so on. If an electric current is applied to such a spiral, somehow moistened with glycerine, the spiral will heat up and warm up the glycerin, which will turn into steam. To supply electricity, it is most convenient to use a regular battery, because we need to carry a cigarette in your pocket. And, the method of delivering the liquid to the spiral is also well known - it's an ordinary wick made of any suitable material that can absorb liquid.
In general, this is how any electronic cigarette is built - it is based on a heater in the form of a spiral made of nichrome, stainless steel, titanium and other similar materials, which is fed by a wick of cotton wool or silica thread (special glass fiber) using the liquid from a special tank or compartment. The user's inhaled air passes by the spiral, or directly through it, enriching at this moment with aerosol from the heated liquid and converted into this very same vapor that the electronic cigarette gives.
As you can see, everything is very simple, but, as they say, "the devil is in the details".
How electricity can be supplied, what forms the coil takes, how the reservoirs are arranged to supply liquid to the spiral, what kind of batteries are there, we'll carefully consider all of this in the following chapters, but for now, let's see what else besides glycerine is included in the liquid for electronic cigarettes.
Liquid for electronic cigarettes.
Not the last, and maybe even the first role in the simulation of the smoking process is played by liquid for refueling electronic cigarettes.
The liquid is usually factory-made, packed in vials in volume from 10 and up to 120 milliliters, equipped with either a pipette, or a convenient spout for filling of a liquid in a tank of an electronic cigarette.
In disposable electronic cigarettes, the liquid is placed inside the electronic cigarette on the factory and, once it is over, the cigarette can be disposed of.
As you have already understood, the basis of the liquid, which turns everything into a thick white vapor when heated, is glycerin. From it we will begin our acquaintance with the components of the liquid.
Glycerin (VG - Vegetable Glycerin).
From the course of organic chemistry in high school, we probably remember that glycerin C3H5(OH)3 is a fairly simple chemical compound that belongs to a group of alcohols, and more specifically, it is a triatomic alcohol. Transparent, rather viscous liquid, with sweet taste. Very hygroscopic, loves to absorb water and mixes with it in any proportions. The boiling point of pure glycerin is 290 degrees Celsius. Derivatives of glycerol (triglycerides) are an important part of the metabolism in living organisms, so that glycerin is not alien to our body at all.
Glycerin is produced mainly from vegetable or animal raw materials, or synthetically. In the quality liquid for electronic cigarettes, glycerin is used exclusively of vegetable origin.
Glycerin as a substance has been known to mankind for a long time, and it is widely used in a wide range of fields and industries: food, cosmetics, tobacco, paper, leather, medicine, agriculture, etc. It has, among other things, the properties of the stabilizer and emulsifier, and is registered as a food additive E422. This number can be found on the packaging of many products: where it is required to make the consistency thicker, or simply mix some poorly miscible components.
As for the health hazard, glycerin does not apply to substances that pose any danger to it, otherwise it would not be so widely and freely used.
On the other hand, the product of dehydration of glycerin, which is obtained from it by simple heating to a sufficiently high temperature - acrolein, is poisonous. In addition, in the synthetic production of glycerin, acrolein is one of the process steps, and if the final product is poorly purified from it, traces of acrolein may remain in it.
In the liquid for electronic cigarettes, if the manufacturer adheres to all the rules, vegetable glycerine is included in the medical grade of purification, thus, containing no hazardous to health impurities.
Propylene glycol (PG - Propylene Glycol).
Liquid components is not limited to glycerin. By itself, it has a rather pronounced sweetish and not very pleasant taste, and if the liquid contained only glycerin, it would have to be masked with a very large amount of flavor.
In addition, glycerin is thick, and for this reason, it's very difficult to him to pass through various wicks alone, which is very important for an electronic cigarette. So glycerin is better to dilute with something less sweet and less viscous, and another alcohol, this time monohydric - propylene glycol, perfectly suited this role.
This is also a colorless viscous liquid, and also has a sweet (but less pronounced than glycerin) taste. Propylene glycol is also very fond of water and easily mixes with it. Propylene glycol boils at a temperature of 190 degrees.
There are two other reasons why propylene glycol is usually present in the liquid on a par with glycerin:
  • Propylene glycol has a lower boiling point, and, when added to glycerin, it lowers the boiling point of the mixture, which allows steam to be produced at lower energy costs and at a lower temperature. And the lower the temperature, the better - less chance that unpleasant acrolein will start to emit from glycerin.
  • Propylene glycol causes a slight irritation of the mucous membranes, and this property seems to be harmful, the vapers use it to feel the so-called Throat Hit, a blow to the throat: feelings, something reminiscent of smoking a regular cigarette. One, but not the main and not the only component of the liquid that causes such an effect, is precisely propylene glycol.
As for the harm to health, besides the mentioned irritation of mucous and rarely occurring allergic reactions, propylene glycol is not noticed for any other dirty tricks, and is considered a safe substance. For example, it has been used in aerosols for asthma patients since the middle of the 20th century, and no side effects from its inhalation have been observed so far.
Water is a necessary part of the liquid, whether we like it or not. There is a fact that both used spirits are extremely hygroscopic, and in order to completely extract water from them, a special and expensive procedure is required. So the water in the liquid is contained in any case, even if it was not specifically added there. And this is a plus, because the presence of water further reduces the boiling point, and makes vaporization easier and safer.
The question of the health hazards applied to water, is somehow embarrassing to discuss. Let's just say, a lethal dose of water - about 15 liters at one go.
Food flavoring.
If the whole liquid consisted only of glycerin and propylene glycol, then electronic cigarettes would have hardly gained such popularity - they would be completely tasteless. Therefore, to give the smoker a familiar tobacco taste, or simply to make the taste pleasant, food flavorings are added to the liquid. They can be very different - in fact, the fantasy of the manufacturer of the liquid is not limited here, the food flavorings industry produces a great variety of them, and there is no reason why they could not be added to the liquid. Of course, liquids for electronic cigarettes with a taste of pasta with cheese or pizza are rare (although there are some), but various kinds of fruit, dessert and other flavors are very common.
There are also liquids without flavors (the so-called base) - they can serve both for the addition of their own flavors, and for vaping in a pure form. In particular, liquid without flavoring is advised to vape in the case when over-saturated aromas messed up your taste receptors.
Exactly the same flavors give the taste and aroma to a huge number of different products that you eat every day - candy, confectionery, chips, baked goods and much more. And that's why an electronic cigarette, say, with a strawberry taste, tastes more like a strawberry candy - also sweet, and the same strawberry flavor.
And, finally, the most often mentioned component of the liquid for electronic cigarettes is nicotine. It is believed that it is because of nicotine addiction that people smoke ordinary cigarettes, and therefore any means of substituting for tobacco smoking should include the delivery of nicotine into the bloodstream. This is partly true, because we have already said above that the habit of smoking is more of a psychological origin.
However, an electronic cigarette is a fairly effective way of delivering nicotine into the body, by simply adding it to the liquid. Nicotine perfectly and very quickly absorbed through the mucous membranes, so that when the vapor is inhaled, this process begins in the mouth, and continues in the lungs. Nicotine is certainly a poison, and irresponsible or careless handling of it can lead to the most serious consequences, even lethal. Fortunately, using an electronic cigarette, the flow of nicotine into the blood can be regulated quite accurately, since it can be added to the liquid in any desired amount, down to the smallest. Or do not added at all - such non-nicotine liquiids are also popular with those who decided to completely break up with nicotine, but are not ready to give up the habit of smoking.
Nicotine, which is a part of liquids for electronic cigarettes, is obtained from tobacco leaves, and if it is manufactured by a large pharmaceutical company, it undergoes numerous purification steps. In other words, absolutely pure nicotine is added to the liquid without any traces of tobacco, from which it was made. Nicotine affects primarily the cardiovascular system, narrowing the blood vessels and causing the heart to beat more often. For a young and healthy person this is not too dangerous, but if a vaper already has certain health problems, he needs to be especially careful with nicotine. Nicotine overdose causes a nausea, dizziness, headache. It is excreted from the body for about three hours, after which all the symptoms should pass. But, in any case, you should contact the doctor immediately after you feel symptoms of an overdose. As for the concentration of nicotine in a liquid for electronic cigarettes, it is usually measured in milligrams per one milliliter of liquid.
Incidentally, all these figures in milligrams are very similar to those that are written on packets of ordinary cigarettes, and which indicate the content of nicotine per cigarette.
With all the temptation to bring out some correspondence between the fortitude of cigarettes that a person smoked and the strength of a liquid for electronic cigarettes that he will need, none of this will work, there is no direct dependence for many reasons. Nicotine tolerance in each person's body is different, and the effectiveness of nicotine delivery of electronic and conventional cigarettes is too much different, and, most importantly, the amount of nicotine in one puff in the case of electronic cigarettes depends very much on the features of e-cig, such as power or coil used. So the necessary concentration of nicotine in the liquid for each vaper should be selected individually. The taste of nicotine is burning like a pepper. That is why this is the main component in the liquid for electronic cigarettes that is responsible for the Throat Hit mentioned above (in fact, TH is an irritation caused by nicotine or, to a lesser extent, propylene glycol). Naturally, the higher the nicotine content in a liquid, the stronger TH it will cause.
Nicotine salts (Nicsalts).
Now, salt-based nicotine is gaining popularity, providing better absorption to the human circulatory system.
Nicotinic salts are a form of nicotine found in tobacco leaves. Unlike the usual nicotine, salt nicotine is a more complex compound that contains, besides the substance itself, other organic components. It can be a combination of one or several chemical elements, but the result is always the same - the formation of a more stable molecule. Nicotine, traditionally used in liquids for vaping, is called "free" ("freebase nicotine"). This nicotine is usually not associated with any other substances and is considered preferable for vaping because of its volatility. But despite its advantages, it is not devoid of an important drawback - a serious initial assimilation by the body, since getting into the blood occurs not immediately after the first inhale. A mixture with a low level of acidity (pH) was obtained by adding a benzoic acid, which was better absorbed by the human body. It should be noted that the higher the pH, the more "free" nicotine will be contained in the vapor, and the more severe it will be for inhalation. Liquids with nicotinic salts in contrast have a much smaller TH and, with smaller volumes, they better satisfy the need for nicotine. I must say that the content of nicotine in such liquids is measured by several other values and can reach up to 100 mg/ml, but only a couple of puffs are enough for "saturation". What do all these innovations mean for end users? And there are a lot of pluses here, in fact. First, liquids with nicotinic salts in the rate of absorption of nicotine into the blood are as close as possible to ordinary cigarettes (without the hundreds of different additives of different carcinogenicity used in regular cigarettes). A lot of newcomers, vapers, moving from cigarettes to e-cigs, faced a problem when the state of "saturation" comes with a great delay. Hence, as a consequence, many "overdoses" and a whole bunch of unpleasant consequences for health. Salt nicotine in this case is able to cope with the function of blood saturation much better, as it is immediately absorbed through the lungs. A reasonable question arises about the safety of a person of such a new variety of nicotine. As the initial studies showed, although nicotinic salts contain "excess" components in comparison with free nicotine, they remain as safe when vaping, as well as the more familiar form of this substance. And, although animal tests still showed a small health risk, nevertheless, in the long term, liquids containing nicotine salts are not more harmful than conventional and certainly safer than "analog" cigarettes. But Dr. K. Farsalinos states that, since there is practically no full-scale research to date, the acid contained in the composition can possibly react with some parts of the atomizers and cause their corrosion.

So, we have found out that the liquid for electronic cigarettes consists of glycerol, propylene glycol, water, flavor and nicotine (the latter two components may be completely absent). The strength of the liquid is determined by the concentration of nicotine, and can be different. The higher the strength of the liquid, the more nicotine will enter the blood of the vaper with one puff. And, of course, the taste of liquid at the same time can be very different - it all depends on the flavorings that were added to it during its production.
At this point, factory-manufactured fluids can have a different formulation and a different ratio of glycerin to propylene glycol. Sometimes the formulation is indicated on the packaging of the liquid, sometimes not, often the manufacturer does not report such details at all. There are several main variants of consistence:
  • Classical: 50/50 or so. A good balance between taste and quantity of vapor, the liquid is relatively non-viscous, suitable for small electronic cigarettes with small coils. Does not require a lot of flavors.
  • With a high content of glycerin (VG): a ratio of 70VG/30PG or 80VG/20PG. A large amount of vapor, but increased viscosity and requires a large concentration of flavor in the liquid to dampen the not very pleasant taste of the glycerin itself.
  • Without propylene glycol: it is produced on pure glycerin without the addition of propylene glycol, especially for consumers who have an allergic reaction to propylene glycol. Not to be confused with liquids referred to as MAX VG - this designation is applied to liquids containing propylene glycol only in the form of flavors based on it.
Liquids with a high content of glycerin and greater complexity of the flavor composition are often presented as "premium", intended for gourmets and vape enthusiasts. Such liquids often have complex and refined composite flavors, and their presentation is more developed: it can have additional packaging and various bonuses, such as a pack of cotton wool or replaceable spirals. Liquids oriented to everyday vaping and mass market segment usually have simpler tastes..
It should be noted that when switching from conventional cigarettes to electronic cigarettes, consumers tend to initially choose liquids with tobacco flavors, in an attempt to preserve the usual sensations. But quickly enough, most of them part with the taste of tobacco and go on to other tastes: fruit, dessert - just because they are tastier. Often people who are not familiar with electronic cigarettes before, refuse to vape liquids with fruit or dessert flavors because in their view it is something like flavored tobacco, but in fact a strawberry-flavored liquid tastes not a strawberry tobacco, but a strawberry candy, and this is not the same thing.
Any "tobacco" liquids, even if they are called in the manner of popular brands of ordinary cigarettes, have a very, very remote relation to the taste of cigarettes, because it convincingly imitates the whole bunch of filth that the smoker tastes by inhaling tobacco smoke with the help of harmless food flavors is simply impossible. And if it turned out, it is unlikely to vape such a liquid would be nicer and safer than smoking conventional cigarettes.

To be continued...
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Electronic cigarettes and public health.
The issue of the electronic cigarettes possible health damage has been discussed quite vigorously recently, and, since there are still very few scientific studies of this issue, probably due to their high cost and durability, various opinions and beliefs arise, including completely opposite.
On the other hand, practically all the ingredients that make up the liquid have been used for a long time in a variety of areas, well studied and all questions about their possible harm are more or less resolved. Let's just say that if all the initial components had a high degree of purification, and the production technology was followed, then, excluding the nicotine, there are no substances in the liquid that are hazardous to health, of course, if you are not allergic to some ingredients. Some doubts were about propylene glycol: it was not clear if it represented a danger as an inhaled aerosol, but this issue was already safely shut down - propylene glycol is not dangerous. Another thing is that, when glycerin is heated up, its thermal dehydration (decomposition) can occur, the product of which is an unpleasant substance - acrolein. Not only does it have a tear-off effect, extremely irritating the mucous membranes, it is also a confirmed carcinogen. So neither during the production of liquids, nor in the process of using an electronic cigarette, strong heating of the liquid should not occur, otherwise it can carry a health hazard. In order to avoid too much heat, there are special modes of operation for electronic cigarettes.
Proceeding from all this, now the leading scientists and doctors involved in the fight against smoking are convinced that the use of electronic cigarettes, if not totally safe, but at least 100 to 1000 times less dangerous than smoking. And many of them are sure that everything that allows a person to give up an ordinary cigarette should use the full support of both the government and the medicine. As for all kinds of medical and healthcare-control organizations in different countries, their positions are also very different - from support or ignoring to opposition and prohibitions. We will discuss this in more detail a little later, when we talk about electronic cigarettes and laws. In any case, if a user of electronic cigarettes thinks about their safety, he should understand that it is more or less guaranteed only when both the liquid and the electronic cigarette itself are made qualitatively, with observance of all technologies. This can only be guaranteed by more or less large manufacturers or suppliers who are able to afford the laboratory control of both the inputs for the production of components and the liquid produced by them. Otherwise, we have to rely only on the common sense and integrity of both component suppliers and people involved in production.
As you probably already knew, making liquid for electronic cigarettes is easy - just mix four ingredients. Ingredients are also quite affordable and inexpensive. So some vapers even make a liquid on their own, buying either all the components separately, or already prepared "base" of mixed in a certain proportion of glycerin, propylene glycol and nicotine, in which you must only add flavoring to taste.
And, of course, one of the constituent fluids must be taken particularly carefully - nicotine. If a vaper feels the need for nicotine, he should try to satisfy it with the minimum amount of nicotine, using a liquid with minimal concentration, and keeping track of his condition. At the slightest signs of an overdose of nicotine, vaporization should be stopped, and concentration of this substance in the used liquid must be reduced.
It should be remembered that retail stores of electronic cigarettes, as well as most other employees of the involved companies, do not have medical education and should not give consultations on medical issues. All consultations of this kind should be given by doctors. If the customer of a retail store is interested in, say, whether to use an electronic cigarette during pregnancy or a particular disease, the seller must refrain from recommending and advise the client to consult his doctor or another medical professional.
Electronic cigarettes and law.
Electronic cigarettes are still a new phenomenon, and therefore, the laws that somehow take their existence into account and regulate their turnover and consumption, are pretty rare.
In some countries, electronic cigarettes are completely banned, in some they are more or less equated to conventional tobacco products and are regulated by the same laws.
It is worth noting that in Thailand you can be in prison or pay a huge fine for just trying to bring your e-cigarette to the country. Travelers who intend to visit countries with an incomprehensible attitude to the consumption of electronic cigarettes, will want to clarify all the questions they are interested in from the tourist operator, or in the embassy.
More and more countries are adopting special laws relating specifically to electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes and liquid for them have nothing to do with tobacco products, the circulation and use of which are regulated by the relevant laws, and do not fall under these laws, which explicitly prohibit smoking in most public places, including public catering establishments, transportation, etc.
In principle, in all these places it is not forbidden to vape an electronic cigarette by law, and for the moment vaping is regulated only by the common sense of the vaper himself, and also by some local rules operating in a certain place. For example, you really can't the use of electronic cigarettes on board of the most airlines or even at the airport. This is not due to the potential danger of electronic cigarettes, but to the inability to control other passengers, because if one of the passengers uses an electronic cigarette - someone will definitely decide that you can smoke on board, or smoke can provoke panic. The rule at all can be reduced to simple - do not vape where you would not smoke.
And, of course, we must bear in mind that the vapor from the electronic cigarette, although much safer than the cigarette smoke, and even usually quite pleasantly smelling, can still cause justified irritation and discontent among the surrounding people.
And one more thing - although the sale of electronic cigarettes is not restricted in any way and is not regulated by law, electronic cigarettes and liquid for them should not be provided to persons under 18, regardless of the content of nicotine in the liquid.

To be continued...
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WoW that took some time! great job!
微笑  smoke free since January 2014 ?微笑
The all-mighty electronic cigarette.
We discussed the principles of the operation of an electronic cigarette and found out that this is a small pocket smoke machine in which a spiral under the influence of an electric current heats the liquid coming to it through the wick and, thus, turns the liquid into vapor. Now it's time to look inside, and find out exactly how this happens. If we need to create a device that evaporates liquid with electricity, it is necessary to solve three main tasks:
  1. Where can it get electricity?
  2. How to deliver the liquid to the coil?
  3. How to make liquid to vaporize?
In fact, an electronic cigarette consists of three main parts, each of which solves one of the above tasks:
  1. Battery (responsible for storing and feeding electric charge to the heating coil)
  2. Fluid reservoir (contains a supply of liquid)
  3. Evaporative element (responsible for the actual evaporation of the liquid)
Quite often, two or even all three of these parts can be combined in one package and look like a single unit - in modern electronic cigarettes, the evaporation element is usually combined with a liquid reservoir (this design is called an atomizer). On the other hand, any of these three parts can exist separately, and often a fully functional e-cigarette can be assembled from parts manufactured even in completely different factories under different brands. In the world of electronic cigarettes, there is a certain compatibility of components among themselves. Electronic cigarettes are also sold in a variety of options. You can buy:
  • One-time electronic cigarette, in the body of which all of the above elements are contained.
  • Re-usable electronic cigarette in the form of a set, which includes everything you need - battery and atomizer. Sometimes all this is done in a single package and inseparably, but more often the battery and the atomizer are separate modules and are connected using a connector.
  • Separate components of a re-usable electronic cigarette: separate battery compartment and separate atomizer.
Both disposable and re-usable electronic cigarettes can measure from miniature, simulating a conventional cigarette, to huge "electronic hookahs". Forms are also very diverse - from cylinders simulating ordinary cigarettes, cigarillos, cigars or simply not trying to pretend to be like anything, boxes and so on. In addition to the sizes, many other things are different: the capacity of the batteries and the maximum power, the volume of the liquid in the tank, the ways and convenience of refilling, the ability to replace the coil or build it yourself, and much, much more.
Connector of the electronic cigarette.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, in modern reusable electronic cigarettes, a battery and an atomizer are connected to each other by means of a connector.
The connector of the electronic cigarette is a simple thing, but it's also very important, because it provides the compatibility between the batteries and atomizers of different models and manufacturers. The connector looks like a threaded connection, through which the atomizer is attached to the battery. The most common type of connector is type 510. It is found on 99% of reusable electronic cigarettes sold all over the world, and guarantees to users and manufacturers a certain level of compatibility between different batteries and atomizers.
The history of the appearance of this connector is uncomplicated: it is named after the very popular model of the electronic cigarette by Joyetech, which tried its best to resemble a conventional cigarette, and had about the same diameter and length. The Joyetech 510 consisted of an atomizer and a battery, and they were connected using a threaded connector with an internal thread on the battery side and an external connector on the side of the atomizer. 510 means that the threaded connection has 10 turns with a distance of 0.5 millimeters between them. The diameter of the connector is 7 millimeters.
The model was extremely popular and had many clones and imitations. And since then the type of connector has not changed - to maintain compatibility, almost all manufacturers in most of their models of batteries and atomizers continue to use this connector.
There were two main types of 510 connector: a frequently encountered variety without a "skirt", just this was on the original Joyetech 510, and for much older electronic cigarettes there is the modification with a "skirt", which at one time appeared on another popular model Joyetech eGo. Thus, the modification of the 510 connector with the skirt can be referred to as the eGo connector or 510/eGo connector.
As for the compatibility of these two connector types, they are only conditional: you can usually install an atomizer with any kind of 510 connector on a battery with a 510/eGo connector, but there is a problem to install an atomizer with a 510/eGo connector on an usual 510 connector battery - it is only possible to do by using the appropriate adapter - they are manufactured and available for sale.
It only remains to add that there were other types of connectors, in addition to the 510, but none of them was widely used, and most of them are now safely forgotten. Sometimes you can meet other types of connectors, but, as a rule, these are proprietary (private) connectors that can be seen only on particular model and nowhere else.
E-cigarette battery unit.
The battery of an electronic cigarette plays a very important part. Although the battery itself does not convert the liquid into vapor, it is the only source of energy for such a transformation.
In addition, all the functions of controlling an electronic cigarette, starting from a button, by clicking on which the user starts evaporation, and up to all sorts of extra features, are also concentrated in the battery unit. Roughly speaking, it also contains all electronics of the electronic cigarette, forgive me for that spelling.
As for the size and appearance, then there is a complete diversity. As I have mentioned before, at the dawn of their appearance electronic cigarettes tried to be as good as ordinary cigarettes, but then this desire came to naught, and now the designers are limited only by their own imagination and vision.
But, in any case, batteries for electronic cigarettes can still be divided into two large classes - made in the form of a tube, or made in the form of "box". The latter are often called "box-mods".
Inside such a "pipe" or "box", there is a mandatory source of electricity - one or more lithium-ion (or lithium-polymer, in rare cases) battery cells. These battery cells can be removable or non-removable, can be charged both directly in the case (just as you charge your mobile phone without removing the battery from it), or in a special external charger for this type of battery. Naturally, in the latter case, the battery cell must be removable.
Electronic cigarettes use the most modern type of "chemistry" of battery cells, denoted as Li-Ion or Li-Pol. Such battery cells have the maximum current density (the amount of accumulated energy per unit of mass of the battery), and are free from unpleasant and inconvenient effects such as "memory effect".
It should be kept in mind that absolutely all lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery cells have the same electrical properties: being fully charged, such a cell has a voltage of 4.2 volts, and when it discharges - it drops significantly, and the minimum threshold is 3,2 Volts, upon reaching which the cell counts as depleted.
This knowledge we will need in the future, when we will discuss the "electrical" aspects of the work of electronic cigarettes, so remember these figures.
As for the size of battery cells, they can also be very diverse, although the most popular sizes are usually used for removable cells. Of these, the most common is the size 18650, where the first two digits of 18 indicate the diameter in millimeters, and the next two - the height in millimeters. That is, a battery cell of the size 18650 is a cylinder with a diameter of 18 and a height of 65 millimeters. Earlier, cells of size 26650 were distributed, and now 20700 and 21700 are gaining popularity - their diameter and height can be determined independently. There are also more "exotic" sizes, for example, 10400, 18350 or 16650.
But let's leave the battery cells for a while, and get back to the battery units of electronic cigarettes themselves.
In addition to the power supply itself, most electronic cigarette battery units also contain some kind of electronic circuit of greater or lesser complexity, which answers immediately for much:
  • Supply voltage to the atomizer only during inhale.
  • Control voltage output, that is, the power of the electronic cigarette.
  • In the presence of thermal control modes - control the temperature of the spiral.
  • Charge built-in or replaceable battery cells.
  • Indication of the status of the battery and other operating parameters.
  • Protect the battery from overcharge and overcharge.
  • Protection against short circuit, from too long inhales and the like.
  • Service functions such as puff counters, backlight color changes, screen-severs, games, built-in clocks and so on.
It is necessary to understand that not all models contain all this set of functions, many are limited to only a few of them, the most important are the supply of voltage during the inhale, the indication of the discharge of the battery, and protection against short circuits.
The electronic circuit in the battery unit of the electronic cigarette may have some means of control and indication: one or more control buttons, one or more LED indicators. In more advanced models, pretty big displays are often built in, up to touch and color, where information is displayed in text and graphics. In addition, there are models in which control is carried out from a connected special smartphone application or even voice input.
Automatic and manual control.
Once again we remember: when electronic cigarettes just appeared, one of their main tasks was imitation of the regular cigarettes. Therefore at their creation designers tried to make so that also process of their work differed nothing from smoking. In such electronic cigarettes, a special inhale sensor was mandatory, which allowed the electronics to apply voltage to the atomizer only at the moment when the user inhales and automatically cut off its supply when the puff is over.
Batteries working on this principle are usually called "automatic", and they can have no buttons at all - in this case they are absolutely unnecessary. The user simply makes a puff, the electronic circuit inside the battery understands this with a sensor, and turns on the power supply. The atomizer starts to produce vapor from the liquid, and does so until the user ceases to draw in air. Typically, the supply of electricity to the atomizer is accompanied by the inclusion of a light indicator at the end of the cigarette, which can even simulate the light of regular cigarette.
At the moment, "automatic" almost do not occur among reusable electronic cigarettes, because they were not very reliable, but they still constitute near one hundred percent of disposable electronic cigarettes. A characteristic feature of the "automatic" is the air duct running inside the battery itself - it is needed to trigger the inhale sensor. The presence of this duct is what makes such batteries not very reliable: sooner or later liquid from the atomizer gets there and disables either the sensor itself or the electronics board. In contrast to "automatic machines", most electronic cigarette rechargeable batteries - the so-called "manual" ones, have been equipped with a button to control the supply of electricity to the atomizer. On these batteries there is a large and conveniently located button, which the user must hold during the inhale. Plus of this solution - reliability and independence from the design of the atomizer, and minus - the inability to make a puff, holding the cigarette with your lips or teeth without the help of hands. However, modern electronic cigarettes are usually too large and heavy to hold them like that when vaping.
Charging the electronic cigarette.
The battery of a modern electronic cigarette can be recharged, usually through the built-in charger, which receives power through the MicroUSB port (less often - USB Type C and others) - as well as any of the many other gadgets running on the battery.
Some obsolete or simply too small electronic cigarettes can have other charging methods - for example, specialized chargers that somehow attach to the battery. Sometimes they are screwed into a regular 510 connector instead of an atomizer (which will have to be unscrewed for charging), sometimes charging is connected to the magnet to the end of the battery opposite from the connector. There are also very tiny electronic cigarettes, the size of an ordinary cigarette, for which one (or even the only) method of charging is to place them in a special "cigarette case", inside which is a larger battery that transfers a charge to a small battery of an electronic cigarette. In this case, the user through USB charges the "cigarette case" battery, and then carries his electronic cigarette in it, where it is constantly recharged. If the battery cell is replaceable and has one of the standard sizes, it can be charged outside the case of the electronic cigarette itself, in a universal external charger for Li-ion batteries. Such devices are widely available on sale, and have from one to six slots for the battery cells. As a rule, in slots having a spring-loaded contact, it is possible to install cells of various formats, up to 26650.
If we talk about the time necessary to fully charge the battery, it depends on many factors - both on the current consumed, and on the number and capacity of the battery cells. Typically, this is 2-3 hours, but in some cases, the time needed to fully charge, can reach 5-8 hours.
The figure of the capacity of the battery cells requires a separate discussion. I only note that, as a rule, the capacitance of the battery of an electronic cigarette is tried to be sufficient to ensure that the user can not care about the need to charge it during the day, but, unfortunately, this is not always possible - the power levels of vape devices grow much faster than the capacity of available batteries.
Mechanical mods.
In some cases, the battery of an electronic cigarette, despite the name, may not contain any electronics at all - just a compartment for the battery cell, a mechanical button and a connector. Such minimalist patterns are popular among the vaping enthusiasts and are commonly referred to as "mechanical mods" or "mech".
In fact, all that mech can do is to apply voltage directly from the battery to the atomizer when you press the button. All issues of protection, control, management, charging, etc. remain at the mercy of the user. The battery cell or cells in the mechmods are usually replaceable, external chargers should be used to charge them.
The button for mechmods, as a rule, is quite large, is almost always inconvenient (often on the bottom end of the battery), it can have a mechanical lock from accidental pressing, or can simply be drowned into the case as such protection.
The use of mechmods is unsafe, since in them the lithium-ion battery is located without any protection from a special protective circuit, which should not give the battery an ability to over-charge, over-discharge, and must protect it from short circuit. There were cases of explosions of battery cells in mechmods.
So, we have established that electronic cigarette accumulators come in a variety of shapes and sizes, contain either removable or non-removable one or several battery cells, usually have control elements and displays, and can often be charged from USB. To connect the battery to the atomizer, the 510 connector is usually used, although the atomizer and the battery can be made as All-In-One. Well, and to supply electricity to the spiral at the time of puff, either the inhale sensor or "manual" button control is used, which the user presses and holds during the puff.
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(05-23-2018, 02:33 PM)Vapeoholic Wrote:  Is there any chance that this could be moved to important threads ?

I'm not finished yet =) Not much time on my hands now...
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Excellent post covering everything a new vaper would want to know Great Job


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